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Medical/Physical Health Care

    Results: 39

  • Birth Control Counseling (1)
    LJ-2000.1000-100

    Birth Control Counseling

    LJ-2000.1000-100

    Programs that provide a comprehensive overview of available birth control methods including information about fertility cycles, natural family planning, contraception and sterilization, and help people evaluate their options and select the method that bests suits their needs.
  • Birthing Centers (1)
    LJ-5000.1700-050

    Birthing Centers

    LJ-5000.1700-050

    Nontraditional childbirth facilities that are provided by hospitals or independent health care organizations for women who wish to give birth in a homelike environment surrounded by family and friends.
  • Brain Injury Rehabilitation (3)
    LR-1570.2000

    Brain Injury Rehabilitation

    LR-1570.2000

    Rehabilitation programs that develop an individually tailored treatment plan that combines the resources of physical, occupational and speech/language therapists; physiatrists (physical medicine specialists); neuropsychologists/psychiatrists; cognitive rehabilitation therapists; rehabilitation nurses; vocational counselors; social workers and/or other specialists to help individuals who have been disabled by an acquired brain injury attain their maximum level of functioning and quality of life. Common disabilities experienced by ABI patients following acute treatment and medical stabilization include problems with cognition (thinking, memory, and reasoning), sensory processing (sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell), communication (expression and understanding), and behavior or mental health (depression, anxiety, personality changes, aggression, acting out, and social inappropriateness). Therapy generally focuses on behavioral management, neuropsychological adaptation, environmental structuring, eating and swallowing management, cognitive and communication skills, daily living and social skills, self-care, ambulation, academic and vocational skills, and community reintegration. The goal of brain injury rehabilitation is to restore functions and skills that can be recovered and to help patients learn to do things differently when functioning cannot be restored to pre-injury levels.
  • Caregiver Training for Brain Injuries / Alzheimer's Disease / Stroke (1)
    PH-0800 * YF-3000.1300 * YF-3000.0440 * YF-3000.8200

    Caregiver Training for Brain Injuries / Alzheimer's Disease / Stroke

    PH-0800 * YF-3000.1300 * YF-3000.0440 * YF-3000.8200

    Programs that provide training for family members and other home-based caregivers which focuses on care-related activities such as medication management, personal care and making the home environment safe and barrier-free as well as on stress management and other techniques to help the caregiver take care of him or herself.

    Any of a variety of conditions that are characterized by significant destruction of brain tissue and resultant loss of brain function which include Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke and other cerebrovascular accidents, traumatic brain injury, post infection damage, brain tumors and permanent damage that occurs as a result of seizures, substance toxicity or other disorders.

    A form of presenile dementia, which is due to the atrophy of the frontal and occipital lobes of the brain, which usually occurs in people age 40 to 60 and which involves progressive and irreversible loss of memory, deterioration of intellectual functions, apathy, speech and gait disturbances, and disorientation.

    A sudden loss of consciousness followed by paralysis which is caused by hemorrhage into the brain, formulation of a blood clot or mass of undissolved matter in the blood that occludes an artery, or rupture of an extracerebral artery causing hemorrhaging in the membranes which enclose the brain and spinal cord.

  • Cervical Cancer (1)
    YF-3000.1480-150

    Cervical Cancer

    YF-3000.1480-150

    A condition in which there is a malignancy in the tissue at the neck of the uterus.
  • Community Clinics (6)
    LN-1500

    Community Clinics

    LN-1500

    Consumer-based, community-controlled, nonprofit outpatient facilities that provide basic health care including physical examinations, immunizations, family planning, nutrition assistance and diagnosis and treatment of common ailments for low income people, people who are homeless or uninsured/underinsured or other medically underserved populations that are geographically, economically and culturally challenged. Services are generally provided on an ability-to-pay basis. In the U.S., most community clinics are part of the network of Federally Qualified Health Centers, and many are known as "free clinics".
  • Condition Specific Rehabilitation Services (1)
    LR-1570

    Condition Specific Rehabilitation Services

    LR-1570

    Programs that provide comprehensive rehabilitation services that help people who have specific types of injuries or other impairments to achieve their maximum level of functioning.
  • Dental Care (1)
    LV-1600

    Dental Care

    LV-1600

    Programs that specialize in the care of the teeth and associated structures in the oral cavity including the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the teeth and gums.
  • Dental Care for People Without Health Insurance / People With Inadequate Health Insurance (1)
    LV-1600 * YJ-8800 * YJ-8780

    Dental Care for People Without Health Insurance / People With Inadequate Health Insurance

    LV-1600 * YJ-8800 * YJ-8780

    Programs that specialize in the care of the teeth and associated structures in the oral cavity including the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the teeth and gums.

    Individuals and families who have no health care insurance coverage and who may not be receiving adequate medical care as a consequence.

    Individuals who do not have adequate coverage to address their medical needs including prescription drugs, doctor visits, medical tests, surgery or other medical procedures or interventions for catastrophic medical conditions.

  • Disease/Disability Information (12)
    LH-2700.1700

    Disease/Disability Information

    LH-2700.1700

    Programs that provide information about the causes and origins, preventive measures, symptoms, screening/diagnostic procedures, and/or methods of treatment or management including the latest research for specific illnesses or disabling conditions.
  • Disease/Disability Specific Screening/Diagnosis (2)
    LF-4900

    Disease/Disability Specific Screening/Diagnosis

    LF-4900

    Programs that offer screening and/or in-depth diagnostic procedures that establish the presence of a targeted disease, disability, condition or disorder and/or which provide a logical foundation for ongoing treatment.
  • Disease/Disability Specific Screening/Diagnosis for Brain Injuries / Alzheimer's Disease / Autism / Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (1)
    LF-4900 * YF-3000.1300 * YF-3000.0440 * YF-1800.0400-050 * YF-5000.1700-050

    Disease/Disability Specific Screening/Diagnosis for Brain Injuries / Alzheimer's Disease / Autism / Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    LF-4900 * YF-3000.1300 * YF-3000.0440 * YF-1800.0400-050 * YF-5000.1700-050

    Programs that offer screening and/or in-depth diagnostic procedures that establish the presence of a targeted disease, disability, condition or disorder and/or which provide a logical foundation for ongoing treatment.

    Any of a variety of conditions that are characterized by significant destruction of brain tissue and resultant loss of brain function which include Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke and other cerebrovascular accidents, traumatic brain injury, post infection damage, brain tumors and permanent damage that occurs as a result of seizures, substance toxicity or other disorders.

    An age-related, non-reversible brain disorder that develops over a period of years. Initially, people experience memory loss and confusion, which may be mistaken for the kinds of memory changes that are sometimes associated with normal aging. The symptoms gradually lead to behavior and personality changes, a decline in cognitive abilities such as decision-making and language skills and problems recognizing family and friends; and ultimately to a severe loss of mental function. Alzheimer's disease is one of a group of disorders called dementias that are characterized by cognitive and behavioral problems. It is the most common cause of dementia among people age 65 and older.

    A developmental disability, usually evident by age three, which affects a child's ability to communicate, understand language, play and relate to others. Other characteristics include engagement in repetitive activities and stereotypic movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines and unusual responses to sensory experiences.

    A neurobiological disorder that arises in early childhood, typically before age seven, and is characterized by developmentally inappropriate behavior including poor attention skills, poor impulse control and hyperactivity. Children with AD/HD have difficulty focusing (picking something on which to pay attention), sustaining focus (paying attention for as long as is needed), and shifting focus (moving attention from one thing to another); tend to fidget, talk incessantly or be constantly "on the move"; and speak and act on impulse rather than waiting their turn. Symptoms typically worsen in situations like the classroom that require sustained focus and self-application, and may be absent when the child is in a new or one-to-one situation. In the adult form of AD/HD, the symptoms associated with hyperactivity may diminish while those related to inattention and impulsiveness persist. Adult symptoms may include lack of attention to detail, inability to maintain focus, poor listening skills, disorganization, forgetfulness, misplacing or losing things, being overwhelmed by tasks of daily living, difficulty sustaining friendships or intimate relationships, impulsive spending habits, restlessness, irritability, low tolerance for frustration, emotional outbursts and poor self esteem.

  • Emergency Contraception (1)
    LJ-2000.1000-200

    Emergency Contraception

    LJ-2000.1000-200

    Programs that prescribe and/or supply birth control pills which are taken within 72-120 hours of having unprotected sexual intercourse to prevent an unintended pregnancy. Emergency contraception may be provided in the form of Plan B (2 pills), a large dose of regular birth control pills (two or four pills twice during a 12 hour period) or through insertion of a copper IUD.
  • Gynecology Services (1)
    LV-6000.2550

    Gynecology Services

    LV-6000.2550

    Programs usually available in community-based health clinics and family planning centers that provide primary and preventive care, family planning services, diagnostic imaging, management of menopause, medical and surgical treatment of women's disorders and/or diagnosis and treatment of cancers affecting the female genital system. Specific routine services generally include pap smears, pelvic examinations, breast exams, urinalysis, pregnancy testing, laboratory tests including testing for sexually transmitted diseases, contraception, morning after contraception and hormone replacement therapy.
  • Hepatitis Testing (1)
    LF-4900.2200

    Hepatitis Testing

    LF-4900.2200

    Programs that administer tests which identify individuals who have been exposed to hepatitis A, B or C by detecting the presence of associated antigens, antibodies or genetic material (DNA). Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver caused by a variety of agents including viral infection (hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and delta agents), bacterial invasion and physical and chemical agents. Hepatitis A and delta agent hepatitis are spread primarily from person to person via the fecal-oral route, but may occur by contact with water or food contaminated by the virus. Hepatitis B and C are spread by blood and serum-derived fluids and by direct contact with body fluids. Depending on the type of hepatitis involved, screening may be particularly recommended for persons who have traveled or worked in countries with high rates of infection, sexually active homosexual men, injecting and non-injecting illegal drug users, persons who work with infected primates in a laboratory setting, persons with chronic liver disease, persons with clotting disorders, blood bank and dialysis workers, dental hygienists, and other members of health care teams who come into contact with blood, body fluids or body tissue.
  • HIV Testing (2)
    LF-4900.2400

    HIV Testing

    LF-4900.2400

    Programs that offer HIV tests which are used to identify individuals who have been infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and are at risk for developing AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) or which are used to measure progression of the disease in people known to be infected. The most common HIV screening test is the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) which most frequently uses peripheral blood drawn from the arm or a finger as a sample, but can also be conducted using serum, oral fluids or urine. Repeatedly reactive EIA tests are confirmed using the Western blot or the immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The most common test that is used to measure disease progression is the PCR (polymeraise chain reaction) or viral load test. Many programs that provide HIV testing also provide pre-testing and post-test counseling which includes information about AIDS/HIV, reducing risks for HIV transmission, emotional support to help the individual deal with the testing process and test results, and information about and referral to other AIDS-related services.
  • Home Health Care (7)
    LT-2800

    Home Health Care

    LT-2800

    Programs that make necessary medical services available in the homes of people who are aged, ill or convalescing.
  • Hospice Care (7)
    LT-3000

    Hospice Care

    LT-3000

    Programs that provide a full range of supportive services for terminally ill individuals who are in the final stages of their illnesses and for their families. Services may include medical care, pain and symptom management, home nurse visitation, case management, emotional and spiritual support, and bereavement services for the patient and members of the family. Hospice care may be provided at home, in a freestanding hospice facility, a hospice unit of a hospital or in long-term care facilities such as nursing homes. In order to qualify for Medicaid or Medicare reimbursement, an individual must have a life threatening illness and must be certified by their physician to have entered the last six months of life.
  • Hospitals (7)
    LL-3000

    Hospitals

    LL-3000

    Medical institutions that provide diagnostic and treatment services for people whose illnesses or injuries require that they occupy a bed for at least one night. Hospitals can be distinguished by the level of care they offer (general acute, subacute, extended acute care), the auspices under which they operate which also, in some cases, defines the patients they serve (city/county, state, Veteran's Affairs, military hospitals), and the medical conditions they specialize in treating (specialty hospitals).
  • Inpatient Rehabilitation (2)
    LR-4000

    Inpatient Rehabilitation

    LR-4000

    Programs that provide intensive rehabilitative services on a 24-hour basis for patients who are severely disabled as a result of injury or disease. Services include a thorough evaluation of the person's abilities and disabilities and the development and implementation of a rehabilitation plan which may incorporate physical, occupational, speech and/or other types of therapies; education about modifications in lifestyle which may be necessary including information about diet, exercise and stress reduction; guidance in using adaptive devices which maximize the person's functional abilities; and counseling for the person and/or significant others to facilitate a positive adjustment to the person's current condition. Inpatient rehabilitation services may be provided by general acute care hospitals or skilled nursing facilities.
  • Medical Equipment/Supplies (6)
    LH-5000

    Medical Equipment/Supplies

    LH-5000

    Programs that pay for or provide necessary in-home hospital equipment, monitoring devices, respiratory aids, prevention kits and other medical supplies that are required by people who want to prevent the transmission of an infectious disease, are coping with the effects of a chronic health condition or disability or are convalescing following surgery or illness. Included are programs that provide medical equipment on a loan basis as well as those that provide equipment that people can keep.
  • Medicare (1)
    NS-8000.5000

    Medicare

    NS-8000.5000

    A federally funded health insurance program administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services for people age 65 and older; for individuals with disabilities younger than age 65 who have received or been determined eligible for Social Security Disability benefits for at least 24 consecutive months; and for insured workers and their dependents who have end stage renal disease and need dialysis or a kidney transplant. As with ESRD, the 24-month waiting period is waived for disability beneficiaries diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, also called Lou Gehrig's disease). Premiums, deductibles and co-payments or out-of-pocket costs apply to Medicare coverage for most people. Special programs that assist with paying some or all of these costs are available for low income individuals who qualify. Medicare has four parts, but not every Medicare beneficiary has every part. Medicare Part A (Hospital Insurance) covers inpatient hospital stays, care in a skilled nursing facility, hospice care and home health care that meets the program eligibility criteria. Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers services from doctors and other health care providers, outpatient care, home health care, durable medical equipment, preventive services and more. Together, Medicare Part A and Part B are called Original Medicare. Medicare Part C enables private insurance companies to offer Medicare Advantage (MA) Plans under contract with CMS that provide all Part A and Part B benefits to plan enrollees. Medicare Advantage Plans include Health Maintenance Organizations, Preferred Provider Organizations, Private Fee-for-Service Plans, Special Needs Plans and Medicare Medical Savings Account Plans. Some plans offer extra benefits and services that aren't covered by Original Medicare, sometimes for an extra cost; and most (but not all) include Medicare prescription drug coverage. Medicare Part D (Medicare prescription drug coverage) is an optional benefit that helps beneficiaries cover the cost of prescription drugs. The plans are offered by insurance companies and other private companies approved by Medicare and add prescription drug coverage to Original Medicare, some Medicare Private-Fee-for-Service Plans and Medicare Medical Savings Account Plans.
  • Medicare Enrollment (1)
    NS-8000.5000-560

    Medicare Enrollment

    NS-8000.5000-560

    Social Security offices that accept applications for enrollment in and determine eligibility for the Medicare program. People who have signed up for early retirement benefits with the Social Security Administration or the Railroad Retirement Board receive their Medicare card in the mail automatically prior to their 65th birthday. Their application for retirement benefits serves as an application for Medicare Part A. Individuals who wait for full retirement age to sign up for SSA cash benefits will need to apply for Medicare approximately three months prior to their 65th birthday month at the Social Security office where they will do the paperwork and designate if they want Part A and/or B. They will get their Medicare card in the mail showing their enrollment (Part A and/or B) with an effective date, the first of their birthday month. These people are now enrolled in Original Medicare and can sign up with a supplement or Medicare Prescription Drug Plan (Part D), or have the option of receiving their Medicare benefits through a Medicare Advantage plan (HMOs, PPOs, special needs plans, private fee for service plans, Medicare savings account plans). If they choose to enroll in a Medicare Advantage plan, they will have to determine availability and which plan is best for them, and then will need to enroll directly with the plan of their choice. Information about Medicare Advantage plans is available in the Welcome to Medicare handbook people receive when they enroll, by calling 1-800-MEDICARE or by using the Plan Finder on the Medicare website.
  • Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Plan Enrollment (1)
    NS-8000.5000-660

    Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Plan Enrollment

    NS-8000.5000-660

    Private Prescription Drug Plans that are approved by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to offer prescription drug coverage for Medicare beneficiaries and accept applications for enrollment. Beneficiaries may also select a plan using the online enrollment application available on the CMS website. The application provides a tool for comparing different plans which vary in costs and specific drugs covered.
  • Medication Information/Management (4)
    LH-2700.5000

    Medication Information/Management

    LH-2700.5000

    Programs that conduct a review of the prescription and over-the-counter medication and other substances (e.g., herbal remedies, vitamins and other supplements, illegal drugs) that people are taking, and answer any questions they may have about their medications or their medication regimen. The reviews address a number of issues including appropriate therapeutic uses of particular substances; adverse side effects; interaction/reaction with foods and other drugs; product identification and availability or equivalency; safety when used by children, pregnant or breastfeeding women or older adults, many of whom may have multiple prescriptions; and outcomes. The objectives of the program are to support the individual's ability to self-administer medications as prescribed and to ensure their safety and well being, particularly in circumstances where their medication regimen is complex.
  • Nursing Facilities (10)
    LL-6000

    Nursing Facilities

    LL-6000

    Inpatient health care facilities that provide nursing and personal care over an extended period of time (usually more than 30 days) for people who require convalescent care at a level which is less than that provided in an acute facility and/or for chronically ill or frail elderly individuals or people with disabilities.
  • Nutrition Education (2)
    LH-2700.6000

    Nutrition Education

    LH-2700.6000

    Programs that provide information concerning the basic principles of healthful eating, food handling, food preparation and shopping skills. Included is information about the basic food groups, vitamin and mineral requirements, the relationship of nutrition to the preservation of good health and the prevention of illness, and dietary choices such as vegetarianism.
  • Palliative Care (4)
    LT-6650

    Palliative Care

    LT-6650

    Programs that provide for the comprehensive management of the physical, psychological, social, spiritual and existential needs of patients with the objective of helping them achieve the best possible quality of life through relief of suffering, control of symptoms and restoration of functional capacity while remaining sensitive to personal, cultural and religious values, beliefs and practices. The focus of palliative care is on people with incurable, progressive illnesses who are in the early stages of their illness. Palliative care may be provided in a wide variety of health care settings including hospitals, nursing facilities, hospice facilities and the person's own home; and may be coordinated with other services including curative therapies.
  • Physical Therapy (1)
    LR-6600

    Physical Therapy

    LR-6600

    Programs that evaluate joint motion, muscle strength and endurance, heart and lung function and the ability of people to perform activities of daily living; and utilize the therapeutic properties of exercise, heat, cold, electricity, ultraviolet, water, manipulation and massage to improve circulation, strengthen muscles, reduce pain and restore mobility to people who have been disabled by a stroke, arthritis, back or spinal cord injuries or other debilitating conditions. Physical therapists practice in a variety of settings including hospitals, private offices, outpatient clinics, rehabilitation centers, developmental centers, home health agencies, schools and pediatric centers.
  • Prenatal Care (1)
    LJ-5000.6600

    Prenatal Care

    LJ-5000.6600

    Programs that provide medical care for expectant mothers from the time of conception to the onset of labor to ensure their own physical well-being and the healthy development and birth of their child. Services generally include identification of risk factors based on age, health and/or personal and family history that may affect a woman's pregnancy; diet and lifestyle advice; routine checkups to look for signs of problems associated with pregnancy (such as edema, preeclampsia, or gestational diabetes) and to assure that the pregnancy is progressing well; ultrasound and other forms of prenatal testing to monitor fetal development and check for possible birth defects; and general information about being pregnant, e.g., what is normal and what is cause for concern, remedies for morning sickness or sleeplessness, managing weight gain and other common issues.
  • Prescription Drug Patient Assistance Programs (3)
    LH-6700.6300

    Prescription Drug Patient Assistance Programs

    LH-6700.6300

    Pharmaceutical companies or pharmacies that make brand name or generic prescription drugs available to patients who are uninsured or underinsured or, for other reasons, cannot afford to pay the market price. Also included are organizations that help qualifying patients complete and file paperwork for submission to drug manufacturers to request such medication or which maintain lists of these types of programs for referral purposes.
  • Prescription Medication Services (1)
    LH-6700

    Prescription Medication Services

    LH-6700

    Programs that provide access to low-cost or difficult to obtain prescription drugs or supportive services that help patients take their medication as prescribed by their physician.
  • Psychiatric Medication Services (1)
    RP-6400.8000-650

    Psychiatric Medication Services

    RP-6400.8000-650

    Programs that prescribe antidepressants, antianxiety drugs, antimaniacs, sedatives and antipsychotic/neuroleptic medications to control symptoms such as delusions, extreme agitation, panic attacks, manic or depressive episodes, hallucinations or paranoia that are associated with specific forms of mental illness. Services may include a psychiatric evaluation to determine the need for medication; prescription of an appropriate drug; and periodic follow-up to monitor the effectiveness of the medication in modifying the individual's behavior, ensure that undesirable side effects are minimized and verify that medication is, in fact, being taken as prescribed.
  • Public Health Nursing (1)
    JP-6600

    Public Health Nursing

    JP-6600

    Programs that protect and improve the health of the community through the use of public health nurses whose services are available through departments of public health, schools and voluntary agencies, typically in connection with medical programs supervised by physicians. Activities may include home visits to provide nursing under medical supervision for acutely ill patients and people who are chronically ill; outreach to populations who may not seek out health care through a traditional medical facility; support for physicians in public health clinics and disease detection programs; first aid and screening programs for school children; nutrition counseling; family planning information and a wide range of health education and prevention programs for the community at large which deal with personal health practices that can help to prevent illness.
  • Stroke (1)
    YF-3000.8200

    Stroke

    YF-3000.8200

    A sudden loss of consciousness followed by paralysis which is caused by hemorrhage into the brain, formulation of a blood clot or mass of undissolved matter in the blood that occludes an artery, or rupture of an extracerebral artery causing hemorrhaging in the membranes which enclose the brain and spinal cord.
  • Telemedicine (6)
    LV-8500

    Telemedicine

    LV-8500

    Programs that allow health care professionals to evaluate, diagnose and treat patients in remote locations using telecommunications technology. Telemedicine permits two-way, real time interactive communication between the patient, and the physician or other practitioners at a distant site. Some programs may also incorporate other forms of communication including transfer of medical information such as CT scans, MRIs, ultrasound studies, radiographic images and pathology images to medical personnel at another site for review and analysis. The technology is also being used in other related areas of practice (e.g., mental health, substance use disorders, gambling) as well as for teaching and remote caregiving purposes.
  • Veteran Outpatient Clinics (1)
    LN-9000

    Veteran Outpatient Clinics

    LN-9000

    Outpatient medical facilities operated by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs that provide routine primary medical care for eligible veterans. Services generally include x-rays, general health check ups, blood pressure checks, treatment for basic illnesses and laboratory tests.
  • Visual/Reading Aids (2)
    LH-0600.9000

    Visual/Reading Aids

    LH-0600.9000

    Programs that pay for or provide equipment or other products which enhance the ability of people who have visual impairments or other disabilities to see and/or read; or which make television programs, feature films, home videos and other visual media accessible by providing a descriptive narration of key visual elements in these programs.
  • Wellness Programs (1)
    LH-2700.9500

    Wellness Programs

    LH-2700.9500

    Programs that offer individual and/or group sessions which assist participants to understand how their lifestyle impacts their physical and mental health and to develop personal practices that enhance their total well-being. Wellness programs are holistic and combine a variety of components which may include a general physical examination that is tailored to the individual's needs; an evaluation of the person's pattern of exercise, eating habits, sources of stress and other lifestyle elements that are potential risk factors; and the development and implementation of an individualized plan for prevention management and early intervention to optimize health and performance which may include physical fitness sessions, nutrition counseling, stress reduction techniques, biofeedback, practice in assuming responsibility for one's choices, and other specific measures for avoiding physical and mental health problems.